Norman Jesse Whitfield (May 12, 1940 – September 16, 2008) was an American songwriter and producer, best known for his work with Berry Gordy's Motown labels during the 1960s. He has been credited as one of the creators of the Motown Sound and as an instrumental figure in the development of the late-1960s subgenre of psychedelic soul. During his 25-year career, Whitfield co-wrote and produced many enduring hits for various Motown artists, including "Ain't Too Proud to Beg", "(I Know) I'm Losing You", "I Heard It Through the Grapevine", "Cloud Nine", "I Can't Get Next to You", "War", "Ball of Confusion (That's What the World Is Today)", "Just My Imagination (Running Away with Me)", "Smiling Faces Sometimes", and "Papa Was a Rollin' Stone". Whitfield worked extensively with The Temptations as a producer and songwriter; he solely produced eight of their albums between 1969 and 1973. He started his own label, Whitfield Records, in 1975, which yielded the Rose Royce hit "Car Wash". Alongside his Motown lyrical collaborator Barrett Strong, he was inducted into the Songwriter's Hall of Fame in 2004. He has written or co-written 61 hits in the UK charts and 92 in the US charts.