Gastrulation and Germ Layer Derivatives

Gastrulation and Germ Layer Derivatives


Today's Audio Brick is based on the upcoming Brick 2.0: Adrenaline (Epinephrine). If you're looking for supplemental information from Bricks 1.0, read up on our Valvular Diseases/Autonomic Regulation of the Cardiovascular System Brick. As a listener of the podcast, you can take 5 ...  Show more

Autonomic Regulation of the Cardiovascular System

When you know the meaning of the word autonomic, the role of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) becomes clearer. Autonomic denotes involuntary or subconscious activity. In physiology, it refers to the many bodily functions that are subconsciously controlled, such as breathing, di ...  Show more

Autosomal Trisomies

Aneuploidies are chromosome number abnormalities. Trisomies fall under the umbrella of aneuploidies. The term trisomy comes from tri, meaning tripled, and soma, meaning body—the tripling of a single chromosomal body. This serious genetic abnormality can have significant effects o ...  Show more

Anatomy of the Skull and Sinuses

The 22 bones that make up the human skull can be divided into two groups: The eight bones that make up the neurocranium, which houses the brain The 14 facial bones, including the mandible, which make up the structure of the face Grouping the 22 bones this way makes it easier to c ...  Show more

Glycogen Storage Diseases

Glucose is the main source of energy for all forms of life, but it isn’t usually stored as individual C6H12O6 molecules. Animals use glycogen to do that job. Glycogen is a large branched polymer of glucose molecules, linked together by α-1,4 and α-1,6 glycosidic bonds. The liver ...  Show more

Normal Heart Sounds

Cardiac auscultation is a clinical skill that involves listening to heart sounds using a stethoscope. It is a low-tech way of detecting disease directly without expensive scanners, blood work, or pathology reports—and another reminder that the art of medicine is not a lost art de ...  Show more

Cell Cycle

Eukaryotic cells reproduce themselves by going through the cell cycle, which divides one cell into two. The cell cycle comprises two main phases, interphase and mitosis, both of which are further broken down into steps, as well as a separate resting phase. When a cell divides app ...  Show more


Hyperthyroidism is an elevation in the serum thyroid hormones T3 and T4 (thyroxine), caused by excess thyroid hormone production from the thyroid gland. This can result from an abnormal thyroid gland (primary hyperthyroidism) or increased synthesis of thyroid stimulating hormone ...  Show more

Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone System

You probably know that the kidneys play an important role in maintaining blood pressure within the normal range. You might also know that they do this by regulating blood volume and the degree of arterial contraction or dilation (the systemic vascular resistance). But do you know ...  Show more


Glycolysis is the first step of metabolism and the biochemical pathway by which glucose is converted into pyruvate. Some cells use glycolysis to make pyruvate to use in other metabolic processes; others, like erythrocytes, rely on glycolysis as their main means of energy producti ...  Show more

Thyroid Diagnosis: Putting It All Together

In your reading about thyroid diseases, you have run across a number of symptoms, physical exam findings, tests, and diagnostic strategies. You have also encountered the diagnostic overlap between the various syndromes and diseases like hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, Graves dis ...  Show more

Tendonitis and Bursitis

People who play tennis or golf, or even those who get wrist or shoulder pain from working on their computers, likely are familiar with pain around the joints of the upper extremity. Is it rotator cuff tendonitis or subacromial bursitis? Tennis elbow or olecranon bursitis? Similar ...  Show more

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

*** Rx Bricks Season Pass *** Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is one of the most dreaded acute complications of diabetes mellitus. It is a medical emergency. When patients with DKA arrive at the emergency department, they are clearly ill, wi ...  Show more

Chronic Complications of Diabetes Mellitus

*** Rx Bricks Season Pass ***   Some of the most dreaded chronic complications of diabetes mellitus come from injury to the blood vessels. Such injury may lead to blindness, renal failure requiring dialysis, and early death from heart at ...  Show more

Cushing Syndrome

Cushing syndrome is a cluster of clinical features resulting from exposure to excess glucocorticoids (hypercortisolism). Most of the abnormalities in Cushing syndrome are caused by high levels of cortisol itself, but an accompanying excess of androgens and mineralocorticoids like ...  Show more

Alveolar Gas Exchange

Getting the air to our lungs in the first place can be challenging enough. How do we get the oxygen out of the air once we have it in our lungs? This huge job comes down to one tiny unit: the alveoli-capillary unit. In this brick, we take a look at how the exchange of gases takes ...  Show more

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Type 1 diabetes mellitus, previously known as juvenile diabetes, is one of the most common chronic diseases in childhood. The pathophysiology of type 1 diabetes begins with autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing β cells in the islets of Langerhans, thus leading to insuli ...  Show more

Ovarian Tumors

The ovaries are a pair of reproductive organs located deep in the pelvis of the female body; they contain the female gametes, the ova. As in many other organs, cancerous and benign tumors (neoplasms) can arise there, but most are malignant. Such tumors are distinct from ovarian c ...  Show more

Congenital Disorders of the Central Nervous System

The central nervous system (CNS) comprising the brain and spinal cord is an incredibly complex part of the human body, so it is no surprise that sometimes things go awry during development. The various anatomic anomalies that result can be so severe as to be incompatible with lif ...  Show more